Saturday, May 23, 2020

Toni Morrison s Beloved And The Ghosts Of Slavery ...

In the novel Beloved, Toni Morrison develops character Beloved as an allegorical figure to embody slavery’s horrific past and the lasting impact that unresolved past trauma has upon the present. Morrison develops the character Beloved to represent all the unremembered and untold stories of slavery and to further the message that we must maintain a collective memory of slavery in order to pursue a hopeful future. Morrison develops Beloved as a character through her interactions with other characters in the novel and they way in which they interact with their past trauma. In Lina Krumholz’s The Ghosts of Slavery: Historical Recovery in Toni Morrison’s Beloved, she comments on Morrison’s construction of a parallel between individual and community memories and the nature of history making as a healing process. Krumholz’s argues that the individual memories of the characters of the novel function as collective memories as well, just as slavery does in ou r history. It is both deeply personal while being a collective experience, the importance of community and of confrontation of the past therefore presents itself as the theme that Morrison hopes to further. Morrison therefore forms the tragedy of slavery into something that can be manageably remembered and able to handle, while also setting the tone for an optimistic future in the face of this rememory. Beloved’s character is surrounded by a great deal of ambiguity as she functions as the novel’s central enigma. Morrison neverShow MoreRelatedHow Does Toni Morrisons Beloved Reflect a Postcolonial Sensitivity997 Words   |  4 PagesToni Morrison defines her writing as a kind of literary archaeology which relies on memory, history and autobiography. How does her literary practice reflect a postcolonial sensitivity? The archaeologist sifts through the rubble of past civilisations for signs of human activity, in order to construct a picture of how people lived in the past. Like a kind of literary archaeologist, Morrison sifted through historical records and researched the diaries and memoirs of slaves and their owners beforeRead MoreThe And Invisible Man By Toni Morrison And Ralph Ellison1726 Words   |  7 Pagesthe African American race has battled great social injustices. From slavery to freedom, being property to owning property, African Americans have fought their way to be a part of equal justice. For many black individuals, their identity was non-existent, stripped away, leaving them powerless due to white power. Race, class, and economic standing are all social issues that are prominent in both Beloved and Invisible Man. Toni Morrison and Ralph Ellison are both American novelists who have created emotional

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Dealing with Patients in Palliative Care and Coping with the Death of a Client - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 660 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? Introduction Patients in palliative care require efficient healthcare services to reduce stress and offer relief of symptoms and support to their loved ones. Death has always been and is, for man, a subject of deep reflection and meditation, both from the physical and psychological point of view. However, in advanced hospital settings and societies, it is becoming increasingly difficult to coexist or accept the mere idea of death, especially for new health care providers (Qaseem et al., 2008). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dealing with Patients in Palliative Care and Coping with the Death of a Client" essay for you Create order Nursing professionals are not exempt from the influence of society and from the experience of emotions generated by death and working with dying patients in palliative care. As a result, it is quite necessary for healthcare providers including nurses to be prepared to cope with patient loss. Increasing the comfort and well-being of the patient and his or her loved ones in the wake of a terminal disease are the main objectives of nurses working in palliative care. These professionals play a key role in patient care in their last moments to provide relief and decrease pain and other symptoms to patients who have a prognosis of life less than six months (Gerow et al., 2010). The World Health Organization defined this care as an approach that helps promote the quality of life of patients and their families in the event that they are faced with problems related to life-threatening illnesses. As a nurse, I can achieve this through relief and prevention of excess suffering by early intervention and best practices in treatment and care of patients experiencing pain and other psychological and physical problems (Gerow et al., 2010). During palliative care, the entire health team becomes involved, but nurses are the ones who have a more direct participation, since they are the one s who meet the immediate needs of these patients. Best practices in caring for terminally ill patients in palliative care highlights the importance of nursing so that this care is performed in the best possible way. Palliative care is absolutely necessary with patients who have a terminal illness (Sepà ºlveda et al., 2002). This does not mean that only geriatric people should be assisted, but also people with advanced, incurable and progressive diseases like cancer. In this sense, palliative care is not only directed towards the patient, but also includes the whole environment and provides a greater degree of comfort during the course of the disease. The quality of nursing interventions requires a deepening of the individualized care defined in the patients own terms, especially when the disease is persistent, irreversible and will lead to death in a given period of time. In this sense, death or its proximity, generates a broad set of attitudes and emotions of varying intensity. It is also pointed out that among the most frequent emotional responses that death involves are anxiety, fear and depression (Sepà ºlveda et al., 2002). In my functions as a nurse, I have a responsibility to help patients’ families to face this transition from life to death while at the same time staying strong myself. Nurses should do this to help both those who suffer from diseases in palliative care and the loved ones that surround them. A warm, supportive and reassuring attitude is expected with the patient’s family. Therefore, the concern here is to understand how prepared a nursing professional is about death and the attitudes he or s he adopts before it. Conclusion In conclusion, we can understand that for every human being, witnessing a death can cause a strange, unique and very personal but infrequent experience. Nonetheless, it has been observed that for the nursing professional it is a more frequent experience since death is now institutionalized. It is thus the responsibility of nurses and other care professionals to help patients and their families recover from such experiences while at the same time coping with it themselves. This institutionalization of death makes the nursing professional have an important participation of this process, both with the dying patient and with their families.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

History of Ford Motor Company Free Essays

To say that Henry Ford dilly-dallied around before finally establishing a serious car company would be invalid. The 40 year old man had been acquiring valuable knowledge regarding business, engines, management, and most importantly cars. Now it was time to take a leap of faith. We will write a custom essay sample on History of Ford Motor Company or any similar topic only for you Order Now In 1903 the Ford Motor Company came to be. Ford, along with other investors including John and Horace Dodge raised $28,000 and in the first 15 months produced 1700 Model A cars. These cars were known for their reliability, yet were still too expensive for the average American. Over the next five years Ford and his engineers produced models with the letters B through S, the most successful of which was the Model N (priced at $500) , and the least successful was the Model K (priced at $2500). It was obvious from the Model N that the key to the companies success lay in inexpensive cars for a mass market. The answer that Ford and the American consumer were looking for was the Model T. The Model T, a small, sturdy four-cylinder car with an attractive design and a top speed of 45 mph, hit the market in 1908. It†s success came from it†s attractive price, at $850, and more than 10,000 were sold in the first year alone. It was easy to operate, maintain, handle on rough roads, and immediately became a success. Along with success came expansion, and in 1910 he established another assembly plant in Highland Park, Michigan. Through interchangeable parts, standard manufacturing, and a division labor, the demand greatly increased for the Model T. It was at this time in 1913 that Ford introduced the assembly line and forever changed our economy, our industry, and our culture. Ford†s concept of an assembly line sprang from the thought that a car could be produced much quicker if each person did one, single task. He applied this in his Highland Park plant, and cut down production time of one Model T to a fraction on the time. The carefully timed pace of a conveyer belt moving the parts along further speeded the process. With these new tactics, a factory could produce 40%-60% more cars per month. By late 1913 he had established assembly plants in Canada, Europe, Australia, South America, and Japan. At this point, the Ford Motor Company was the largest manufacturer of cars in the world. In 1914 Ford astonished the business world by more than doubling the minimum wage for his workers, raising it from about $2. 0 to $5. He argued that if his employees earned more, the company would sell more cars to them and reduce employee turnover. He said in regards to this ecenomical move â€Å"The high wage begins down in the shop. If it is not created there it cannot get into pay envelopes. There will never be a system invented which will do away with the necessity for work. † At this point the company had made $30 million in profits, mainly due to his economical and industrial scheme. It was now that he started focusing not only on cars, but on other world issues such as peace in the wake of World War I. He had a â€Å"peace ship,† called the Oscar II, sent to Norway on an expedition to end the war. This would contribute to his future project, the Ford Foundation. Ford displayed his true motives of pleasing the middle class consumer, when he lowered the cost of the Model T to $350 in 1916. In 1917 Ford started the construction of a industrial complex on the Rouge River in Dearborn, Michigan. The idea was to produce everything a car needed to run in one compact area. They had a a steel mill, glass factory, and automobile assembly line. This plant was the utopia of Ford†s mass production scheme. In 1918 Ford unsuccessfully ran for senate, and a year later he named his son Edsel Ford, the president of the Ford Motor Company. He also started a publication called â€Å"The Dearborn Independent. † This journal, produced weekly, was at first anti-Semitic. Statements against Jews were boldly printed. He said that the Jews were trying to â€Å"wipe out of public life every sign of the predominant Christian character of the United States,† as well as other demeaning remarks. After much public protest, Ford discontinued further publication, and made a public apology to the Jewish people. At this point the popularity started shifting from the Model T to larger more luxurious cars, and in 1927 the production of Model T†s ceased and six months later the Model A was introduced. This model included such improvements as hydraulic shock absorbers, automatic windshield wipers, a gas gauge, and a speedometer. The success of these was limited to 5 million, 10 million short of the Model T. It was at this time that the Ford Foundation was introduced. It was established â€Å"for scientific, educational, and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare. This organization basically attempted to further nurture the world in any aspect possible. This was made possible through all the money acquired through sales, primarily of the model T. Yet this utopia could only be temporary. As more and more large corporations started to pop up, so did labor unions. Ford was the only major manufacturer of cars in the Detroit area that had not recognized a labor union. In 1937 a band of supporters of unionization were physically beaten near a Ford plant by people suspected to work for the President of Ford. As a result, they were accused of unfair labor practices by the National Labor Relations Board. In 1941, following a massive workers strike, Henry Ford agreed to sign a contract that met workers demands. It was only two years later in 1943 when Henry Ford†s son, Edsel Ford died at age 49, and the president of the company. Henry himself was incapable of running the plants and managing business. He died in 1947 at the age of 83 in his hometown. He died a rich man; his fortune ranged somewhere between $500 and $700 million. Yet more importantly he died an accomplished man, who had left an imprint on the very definition of the word â€Å"American. â€Å" How to cite History of Ford Motor Company, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

The Effects of Bullying free essay sample

Bullying is defined as a repeated aggression in which one or more persons intend to harm or disturb another person physically, verbally or psychologically. It can take many forms such as physical aggression, verbal aggression or social isolation. Bullying is a significant social problem and has likely occurred throughout human history. Research has shown that bullying not only affects a child’s learning but it also has detrimental consequences on a child’s future development. Effects on victims include low self-esteem, depression, school failure and anxiety. Implications for aggressors include delinquent behaviour and low levels of happiness. It will be argued that bullying is not normal and that children are not able to cope with it. Bullying is acknowledged to be a common and widespread form of violence in the school context in many countries (Smith et al. , 1999). Olweus (1993) defines bullying as a subtype of aggressive behaviour in which an aggressor intentionally and repeatedly over time harms a weaker victim either physically and/or psychologically. Effects on victims of bullying include low self-esteem, depression, school failure and in extreme cases, suicide. Bullying is a significant social problem in many countries and presents a serious threat to a healthy development during the school career. Research shows that victims of bullying tend to be withdrawn, cautious and insecure. They also exhibit poor psychosocial functioning. Although victims respond in various ways to bullying, avoidance behaviours are the most common (Batsche Knoff, 1994; Kumpulainen et al. , 1998). On the other hand, research suggests that children identified as bullies demonstrate poorer school adjustment, both in terms of achievement and well-being and also perceive less social support from teachers. This implies that bullying has detrimental consequences for both bullies and victims. This essay is set out to investigate the factors relating to bullying and the effects it has on child development. It will be argued that bullying is not normal and that children are not able to cope with it. Bullying may be common, but it is not normal. Many parents and children today underestimate and downplay the significance of bullying in society today. Parents assume that their children are able to cope with bullying, with some parents even thinking that being bullied to a certain extent might â€Å"toughen up† their child. However, as research has shown, bullying has many life-long destructive consequences on these victims of bullying. Not only does bullying cause a child to become withdrawn and cautious, these experiences can have long-term impacts through adolescence and into adulthood. This then hinders their natural ability to make friends and to socialize. Children identified as victims also tend to exhibit poor psychosocial functions. Bullying should not be accepted as a process that children have to go through. Bullying is a destructive relationship problem. Victimized children carry the hurt and fear from bullying forward into adult relationships. As a result, these children tend to withdraw from peer interactions and are at risk of becoming socially anxious. Craig Pepler (2007) noted that once peers become aware that a child is being victimized, they hesitate to intervene for fear of being victimized themselves. They distance themselves from the victimized child and may even join in the bullying to become more accepted by those in power. If children are victimized over a prolonged period of time, they lack the normative social interactions that are critical to their healthy development and emerging relationship capacity. These children also experience significant mental health problems. They tend to be more withdrawn, cautious and insecure. Schwartz (2000) also noted that these children were likely to be less prosocial than uninvolved children were for fear of â€Å"not being able to fit in† (Hoover, Oliver Hazler, 1992). Being a victim of bullying can greatly affect a child’s self-esteem and hinder his or her potential. Victims become increasingly hesitant to engage in social activities, with some even refusing to attend school in order to protect themselves from bullying (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpela, Rantanen, Rimpela, 2000; Rigby, 2003). Pepler and Craig (2000) noted that frequently bullied children experienced a wide range of problems and need focused support to enable them to move on from these abusive interactions. Victims also reported feeling lonelier and less happy at school and having fewer good friends (Boulton Underwood, 1992; Nansel et al. , 2001, 2004). Not only does bullying harm all involved, it also affects the climate of the school, which indirectly affects the ability of all students to learn to the best of their abilities. Poor academic achievement is a likely consequence of victimization; if children are worried about being victimized, they are less focused on academic work (Card Hodges, 2008). Children can only handle a certain amount of pressure before reaching their breaking point. As seen in certain extreme cases, children unable to take the pressure from this constant bullying, resort to suicide, or even mass killings of classmates and teachers. Research suggests that children identified as bullies demonstrate poorer psychosocial functioning than their classmates. They show poorer school adjustment, both in terms of achievement and well-being (Nansel et al. , 2001, 2004), and perceive less social support from teachers (Demaray Malecki, 2003). Implications for aggressors include delinquent behaviour (Rigby Cox, 1996) and low levels of happiness (Rigby Slee, 1993). Haynie et al. (2001) concluded that â€Å"bullying might allow children to achieve their immediate goals without learning socially acceptable ways to negotiate with others, resulting in persistent maladaptive patterns† (p. 31). Perry, Perry Kennedy (1992) also noted that bullies believe they will achieve success through their aggression, are unaffected by inflicting pain and suffering, and process information about victims in a rigid and automatic fashion. Research from Demaray Malecki (2003) showed that bullies were also more difficult in the classroom and were frustrating for teachers. Lessons of power and aggression learned in childhood bullying can lead to sexual harassment (McMaster, Connolly, Pepler Craig, 2002), dating aggression (Pepler, Craig, Blais Rahey, 2005) and may later extend to workplace harassment, as well as marital, child and elder abuse. These social costs of bullying extend beyond the individual and also impact on society as a whole. Parental factors play a major role in determining not only whether their children are subject to bullying but also how well their children are able to deal with it. Most parents today really underestimate the damage that bullying can do. Parenting behaviours of support, involvement and responsiveness are associated with low levels of victimization, whereas child abuse, over protectiveness (for boys) and threats of rejection (for girls) are associated with greater victimization (Finnegan, Hodges Perry, 1998; Ladd Ladd, 1998). Nansel et al. (2001, 2004) also noted that victimization was associated with greater parental involvement in school, which may reflect parental awareness of children’s difficulties but which may also reflect a reduced independence among these youths. Evidence suggests that bullies come from homes in which parents prefer physical discipline, are sometimes hostile and rejecting, have poor problem-solving skills and are permissive toward striking back at the least provocation (Demaray Malecki, 2003; Loeber Dishion, 1984). Clearly then, the effects of bullying could be very much lessened, or in fact, prevented, with significant changes in the attitudes of parents. Farrington (1993) identified an intergenerational link: Parents who bullied in childhood were likely to have children who bullied their peers. Children need help to understand that bullying is wrong, develop respect and empathy for others and learn how to get along with and support others. In conclusion, bullying is wrong and hurtful. Every child has the right to be safe and free from involvement in bullying. Bullying affects children who are bullied, those who bully others and those who know it is going on. There is reason to be concerned for both the aggressors and the victims, with research showing that aggressors are at risk for long-term problems with antisocial behaviour and substance use (Farrington, 1993; Olweus, 1991) and victimized children being at risk for anxiety, depression and somatic complaints (Olweus, 1993; Rigby, 2003). It is essential to identify children at risk for bullying and/or victimization and to provide support for their development and relationships. Although bullying cannot be completely extinguished, it is highly preventable. The implementation of cooperative learning activities to reduce social isolation, an increase in adult supervision at times when bullying is most frequent, supporting bullying awareness campaigns through schools, creating classroom rules against bullies (i. e. role-playing activities and classroom discussions), improving the overall school environment, and empowering students through assertiveness training like peers counselling and conflict resolution programs are all effective ways of ensuring that bullying is minimized greatly. Effective bullying prevention and intervention activities for children enable them to develop the skills essential for building healthy relationships. This way, we can then allow children to hone their normative social interactive skills that are critical to their healthy development.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Utilizing Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Domestic Violence Survivors Essay Example For Students

Utilizing Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Domestic Violence Survivors Essay Introduction Domestic violence is one of the most pressing issues facing social workers today. It occurs between individuals of all ages and nationalities, at all socioeconomic levels, and in families from all types of religious and non-religious backgrounds (Straus Gelles, 1990; Carter McGoldrick, 1999). Domestic violence remains a significant social and public health problem affecting not just the couple but the entire family as well. Increased parental conflict negatively impacts children’s academic, behavioral and social-emotional functioning and the parents’ well being (Carlson, 2000; Carter McGoldrick, 1999; Lyon, 1998). The overall rate of incident has been found to be similar for city, suburban, and rural communities (Straus Gelles, 1990). According to Carter and McGoldrick (1999), violence is a widespread occurrence in families throughout the life cycle in our society as it is in all other patriarchal cultures. The World Health Organization (2002) cited a study brought together population surveys in 48 countries, which indicated that 10-69% of women reported experiencing physical violence from a male partner at some stage in their life. In the United States, approximately 4. million acts of physical or sexual violence are perpetrated against women; while 2. 9 million physically aggressive acts are committed against men each year (Straus Gelles, 1990). The Population Domestic Violence is the most widespread form of violence in the United States and is the major cause of injury to women. In the United States a woman is beaten every nine seconds (Kosof, 1995). According to the first major study of battered women, conducted in 1976, women experienced physical assault in nearly one third of all American families (Kosof, 1995). We will write a custom essay on Utilizing Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Domestic Violence Survivors specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Every year, an estimated three to four million women in the United States were beaten in their homes by a husband, ex-husband, or male lover (Kosof, 1995). Twenty percent of hospital emergency room visits by women are due to battering. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, a woman is in nine time’s more likely to be a victim of a violent act in her own home than on the streets (Kosof, 1995). In the same manner, more than fifty percent of all women killed in the United States are killed by their male partners (Kosof, 1995). According to the American Medical Association, certain groups of women are at higher risk for becoming victims of abuse (Kosof, 1995). These include women who: are single, separated or divorced (or planning a separation or divorce), are between the ages of 17 and 28, abuse alcohol and/or other drugs or whose partners do, are pregnant, and have partners who are excessively jealous or possessive. Domestic Violence is a silent epidemic that occurs in all socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, racial and religious groups. These statistics are frightening, and so too is the life of the person who has been battered or is being battered. The Ecological Perspective According to the ecology of human development an individual is not seen as a passive, static, and isolated entity on which the environment exerts great influence, but as a dynamic and evolving being that interacts with, and thereby restructures, the many environments with which it comes into contact (Gardner Kosmitzki, 2008). The ecological model offers a broad-based conceptualization of domestic violence that takes into account the complex interactions between the individual, the family, the community, and societal risk factors. For example, at the individual level, factors that can increase the level of risk to the victim include substance abuse, unemployment, and poverty, history of abuse as a child, isolated from friends and/or family, and mental or physical disability. These factors increase the likelihood of domestic abuse. However, other factors may be protective and reduce the level of risk to the victim, which include: the victim’s abilities to cope, cognitive abilities, and the presence of social supports or affectionate family ties (Holden Nabors, 1999). In the same manner, in relation to the ecological framework family factors would refer to the processes in the family such as family environment, family interaction, family stressors, and parenting skills. Family stress in conjunction with financial difficulties, chronic poverty and unemployment is one major area that could overwhelm a family’s capacity to function. The stresses and strains of socioeconomic hardship are associated with higher rates of domestic violence (Kaufman Kantor Straus, 1999). Community factors refer to the community in which the family lives, the peer groups of the family members, the formal and informal supports, the availability of jobs, the availability and access to community services (i. e. transportation, mental health services, health care, shelters). Increased levels of neighborhood crime and family poverty can impact and increase the risk and co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment (Andrews, 1996). At the societal level, the established laws and policies in relations to domestic violence may in fact fail to protect the victim and consequently re-victimize her. For example, domestic violence victims are increasingly being charged for â€Å"failure to protect† even when the partner is abusing the child and the mother (Beeman, Hagemeister, Edelson, 1999). .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .postImageUrl , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:hover , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:visited , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:active { border:0!important; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:active , .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8a9b9bda2dabb51bff90ea8f43e2d7ab:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Common Themes In Short Stories EssayIn addition, some states have considered legislation that makes a child’s witnessing of domestic violence a form of criminal abuse (Beeman, Hagemeister Edelson, 1999) and, consequently a reason to remove the child from the home. Finally, due to mandatory arrest laws, dual arrests in domestic violence cases have significantly increased. As a direct result, perpetrators and victims may be treated as indistinguishable and battered women can suffer the same consequences as the batterer (Lyon, 1998). Treatment Approach Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), also know as Solution-Focused Therapy, Solution-Building Practice therapy was developed by Steve de Shazer (1940-2005), and Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues beginning in the late 1970’s in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. As the name suggests, SFBT is future-focused, goal-directed, and focuses on solutions, rather than on the problems. Solution-Focused Therapy operates within a conceptual framework that views people living and creating new narratives about their lives that extend beyond their problem-focused ones. (Cooper Lesser, 2008). It represents a systematic, strengths-based collaborative approach to support individuals, couples, or families. Due to the fact that these systems are interrelated (whether they are individuals within the family or the individual’s personal emotions, cognitions, or behaviors) changes within one-domain effects the other. SFBT conducts the same process regardless of the issues or problems that the individual client brings to therapy. SFBT is an approach that focuses on how clients change, rather than one which focuses on diagnosing and treating problems (Corsini Wedding, 2008). As such it uses the language of change. The signature questions used in solution-focused interviews are intended to set-up a therapeutic process wherein social workers listen for and absorb clients’ words and meanings (regarding what is important to clients, what they want, and related successes), then formulate and ask the next question by connecting to clients’ key words and phrases, continue to listen and absorb as clients again answer from their frames of reference, and once again formulate and ask the next question by similarly connecting. It is through this process of listening, absorbing, connecting, and client responding that social workers and clients together co-construct new and altered meanings that build toward solutions. The major components of SFBT include: (1) Developing a cooperative therapeutic alliance with the client; (2) Creating a solution versus problem focus; (3) Setting measurable and changeable goals; (4) Focusing on the future, through future oriented questions and discussions; (5) Scaling the ongoing attainment of the goals to get the client’s evaluation of the progress made; (6) Focusing the conversation on exceptions to the client’s problems, especially those exceptions related to what they want different, and encouraging them to do more of what they did to make the exceptions happen. According to Trepper, et. al. (2006) the main interventions utilized with SFBT are as follows: (1) A positive, collegial, solution-focused stance; (2) Looking for previous solutions; (3) Looking for exceptions; (4) Questions versus directive or interpretations; (5) Present and future-focused questions versus past-orientated focus; (6) Compliments; and Gentle nudging to do more of what is working. The specific interventions utilized are (1) Pre-session change; (2) (3) Solution-focused goals; (4) The Miracle Question; and (4) Scaling Questions. Implementing SFBT with Domestic Violence Survivors The ultimate goal of the Social Worker to provide a therapeutic context for domestic violence female survivors to re-discover and re-connect with their own resourcefulness in resisting, avoiding, escaping, and fighting against the abuse, develop a vision of a life free of violence, and empower to re-experience their personal power in bringing positive changes in their lives (Lee, 2007). This approach adopts different assumptions and methods in assisting the female survivors to achieve these ends. Rather than building the treatment strategies upon understanding the problem of violence, SFBT suggests a positive change in clients that can occur by focusing on solutions, strengths, and competencies instead of focusing on problems, deficits and pathology (Lee, 2007). The initial step of optimizing the success of solution-focused therapy is based on the Social Worker’s ability to recognize and respect the client’s strengths, abilities, and accomplishments (Lee, 2007). During treatment with a DV survivor, the Social Worker can utilize different questions to assist the client to construct solution patters that does not subject her to violence and abuse in intimate relationships. Exception questions refer to times when the problem is either absent, less intense, or dealt with in a manner that is acceptable to the client. These questions can focus on the times when the client is better able to protect her and to resist, avoid, escape and fight against violence. Outcome questions can be used to assist the client in establishing goals for herself. .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .postImageUrl , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:hover , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:visited , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:active { border:0!important; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:active , .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931 .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8a892682bd58604762ce052e32383931:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Volcano Mount Vesuvius EssayOutcome questions ask the client to state goals in a positive manner rather than in the negative. In the same manner, coping questions assist the client in recognizing her resources in times of turmoil. Coping questions ask the client to talk about how she manages to survive and cope with the problems. The Social Worker must be careful to focus the question on how the client copes with the abuse because these questions may potentially collude with and therefore, run the danger of reinforcing the abuse. The scaling questions ask the client to rank their situation and/or goal on a scale of 1-10, with 1 representing the worst scenario and 10 representing the most desirable outcome (Lee, 2007). These questions are a simple tool for the client to quantify and evaluate her situation and progress so that she can establish clear indicators of change for herself. Relationship questions ask the client how her significant others are reacting to her problem and solution finding progress. Establishment of multiple indicators of change empowers the client to develop a clear vision of a desired future appropriate to her real-life context. Finally, SFBT utilizes task assignment or homework to help the client identify exception behaviors to the problem for which they are encouraged to â€Å"do more of what works† Conclusion In conclusion, the SFBT techniques encourage the client to be curious about her behaviors and potentials and identify, expand, amplify and reinforce solution-oriented behaviors. The Social Worker begins the therapeutic process by understanding the client’s unique experience of her life situation and battering experience. The Social Worker orients the client find solutions for her concerns. While understanding the client’s construction of her situation, the Social Worker, concurrently asks solution-oriented questions to assess risk and mental health status of the client. Utilizing outcome questions, the Social Worker helps the client establish specific, concrete, goals that are stated as desirable behaviors. The Social Worker continually asks exception, outcome, coping, relationship, and scaling questions to assist the client to construct an alternative reality that does not contain violence in her intimate relationships. The Social Worker then compliments the client on any of her positive behaviors and suggestions that are conductive to her self-defined goals. Effectively utilizing these techniques the Social Worker can achieve the ultimate goal of therapy—empowerment of the client. References Andrews, A. B. (1996). Developing community systems for the primary prevention of family violence. Family and Community Health, 16(4), 1-9. Beeman, S. K. , Hagemeister, A. K. , Y Edelson, J. L. (1999). Child protection and battered women’s services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4(2), 116-126. Carlson, B. E. (2000). Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Research findings and implications for intervention. Trauma, Violence Abuse, 1(4), 321-342. Carter, B. , McGoldrick, M. (Eds. ). (1999). The expanded family life cycle individual, family, and social perspectives (3rd ed. ). Boston: Allyn Bacon. Cooper, M. Lesser, J. (2008). Clinical social work practice: An integrated approach (3rd ed. ). Massachusetts: Ally Bacon. Corsini, R. J. Wedding, D. (2008). Current psychotherapies (8th Ed. ) Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Gardner, H. W. Kosmitzki, C. (2008). Lives across cultures: Cross cultural human development (4th edition). Boston, MA: Person/Allyn Bacon. Holden, W. E. , Nabors, L. (1999). The prevention of child neglect. In H. Dubowitz (Ed). Neglected children: Research, practice and policy (pp. 174-190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kaufman Kantor, G. , Straus, M. A. (1999, December). Report on the USAF Family Needs Screener. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. Kosof, A. (1995). Battered women living with the enemy. New York: Franklin Watts. Lyon, T. D. (1998). Are battered women bad mothers? In H. Dubowitz (Ed. ), Neglected children, Research, practice and policy (pp. 237-260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lee, M. Y. (2007). Discovering strengths and competencies in female domestic violence survivors: An application of Roberts’ continuum of the duration and severity of women battering. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 7(2), 102-114. Solution –Focused Brief therapy from a global context. (2003). Retrieved November 10, 2008 from  http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=tz4-Dj6sguw. Straus, M. A. , Gelles, R. J. (Eds. ). (1990). Physical violence in the American families: Risk factors and adaptation to family violence in 8,145 families. New Jersey: Transaction. Trepper, T. S. , Dolan, Y. , McCollum, T. N. (2006). Steve De Shazer and the future of solution-focused therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32, 133-139. The Urban Child Institute. (2008). Family Violence Community Resource Guide. World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health: Summary. Geneva: Author. Running Head: SFBT with DV Survivors 08 Utilizing Solution-Focused Brief Therapy with Survivors of Domestic Violence Teresa Franklin, MS, MBA A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of SW562—Evidence Based Practice with Adult Individuals Sarah Hamil, LCSW, RPT-S, ATR-BC 7 SFBT with DV Survivors

Friday, March 6, 2020

A Day as a Priest Essay Example

A Day as a Priest Essay Example A Day as a Priest Essay A Day as a Priest Essay My interview was with Reverend Andrew Booms who has been appointed by the Bishop of Saginaw to serve as the permanent priest for St. Michael Church in Port Austin. I decided to ask him questions about how he became a priest. There are many details I can learn from a priest. I never knew priests have so much to do from visiting the sick, to celebrating mass. There are three main issues I would like to discuss with Father Andy: his childhood, his career, and his typical day of work. When Andrew Booms was very young, he wanted to become a doctor, having a amily and living in the suburbs. As he grew older he wanted to make a difference in the world. While attending Port Hope High School, Father Andy was not a popular young man and did not possess much athletic talent. As a young boy growing up he wanted to live life to the fullest. He did not know one day he would be a pastor. He also didnt know that he would be pastor in his hometown. While interviewing Father Andy, I noticed we have a lot in common. We both want to make a difference in the world. I believe he was chosen by God to speak to the younger generation to tell them heir future is full of brightness. At age of 24 Andrew Booms entered the seminary and attend St. John Vianney Seminary in Minneapolis. Attending St. John Seminary he told me while studying Mother Teresa appeared to him and became his spiritual leader. During my time interviewing Father Andy, I noticed while we were talking he kept saying that when it comes to a career God already has a plan for all of us. According to Father Andy there is a shortage of priests, but there is no shortage of work. Our diocese is undergoing a lanning process to meet both the needs of the community and the limits or demands on priests and deacons. He has planned many trips, like visiting Sacred Heart Seminary in Detroit. I have noticed that this is a man who is strong, and who has a strong belief in Jesus Christ. When I first asked Father Andy about his typical work day, he told me that the great part of his Job us there is no typical work day, but however there are degrees of normal. A normal day would begin with time of prayer, than mass at the parish. After ass he goes into the office, and meets with the secretary and bookkeeper and by noon he is out for lunch and home visits or meetings. After a long day of work he still finds time for exercising, cleaning and then preparing for dinner. Most nights he has an appointment or meeting, but he spends an hour reading and planning for the next day and usually closes the day with an hour or so of TV. After hearing him tell me about his typical work day I was shocked that he does all this plus more. Priests are always on call and they usually get about 5 to 7 hours of sleep a night. Finally we must come to know that everyone is not perfect. After learning that Father Andy had a dream when he was younger and wanted a family I can see truly that he had a future. During his time as a pastor the bishop has the power to assign a priest to a parish. According to Bishop Cistone (Bishop of Saginaw) a priest can be assigned to a parish for 6-12 years between movies, but the Bishop may request an earlier move if the priest is needed elsewhere. A priest does not always serve in a particular town or parish. A day as a priest By dJbellville

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Strategic Management at Cafe Nero Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 2

Strategic Management at Cafe Nero - Essay Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that Caffe Nero is considered to be one of the fastest growing coffee chains in Europe. It is privately owned which gives it a considerable amount of flexibility to grow. The coffee served at Caffe Nero is widely preferred by many Europeans and is counted amongst the top-selling brands in the U.K.   The brand also has a number of outlets in major airports of the U.K. Caffe Nero serve both hot and cold coffee variants thereby attracting consumers in all seasons of the year. Apart from coffee products, the brand also serves a variety of snacks such as pasta salads, sandwiches, and rolls. Caffe Nero gives special emphasis upon developing good relations with its suppliers who are essentially farmers. The business carries the belief that success depends upon the manner in which firms communicate with their suppliers. The business also ensures that customers are treated warmly and they are provided with a good experience. Caffe Nero has emerged a s a strong competition for many existing lines of coffee shops chains in Europe and as also the Americas. In 2012, U.K had for the very first time broken the  £ 1 billion barriers. The billion pounds worth industry has had lesser impacts of the recession and the figures of its growth say it all. On the basis of sales revenue, the coffee industry of the U.K is worth  £ 831 million. The U.K coffee market is dominated by the instant coffee variant mainly. 72% of the market revenue is from the instant coffee sale. Coffee industry mainly targets the working population sector. Starbucks, Costa Coffee, Seattle’s Best Coffee and Caffe Nero are the strongest players in the retail coffee chain industry. The coffee industry, however, lacks innovation and change in terms of providing healthy coffee. The nutritional value of coffee is seen to decline as they are mixed with ice cream or other ingredients so as to make it more appealing to the younger generation. This has caused some of the older consumers to move away from instant coffee consumption. By focussing on developing a healthier coffee experience, the coffee industry can be expected to bring back many lost consumers.