Sunday, January 26, 2020

Special Needs Children in the UK

Special Needs Children in the UK Special Needs Children Introduction The essay will examine a number of polices and initiatives that have received attention from the UK government. There have been changes in the policies surrounding the country’s curriculum. Issues surrounding this policy reform will be examined in detail. Current trends in education policy have promoted inclusion. This means that children with special needs have been incorporated into mainstream classes. Post compulsory schooling is also top on the education agenda. Besides this, recent education policy has been surrounding issues of school’s marketability. All these issues will be examined and the subsequent impact of those policies given. (Besley and Ghatak, 2003) Inclusion of special needs children Before the introduction of polices around this area, there was an eight year old girl; Victoria Climbie who died under mysterious circumstances. There was therefore a need to make sure that interests of all children were safeguarded regardless of their nature. (Gipps and Stobart, 1997) The main Act passed surrounding the issue of inclusion was the ‘Every Child Matters Policy’ in the year 2004. The purpose of this Act was to ensure that all the children in the UK were adequately encompassed in the education regardless of the fact that they had special needs. It was passed with five aims; Protecting the social and economic well being of the child Ensuring that all children contribute positively to society Ensuring that children received enjoyed good health Ensuring that children were safe Find out how our expert essay writers can help you with your work The spirit of the Act is that most children should have the opportunity to learn together whether or not they have disabilities. Most of them had been placed in special schools where they were rather isolated. Most of them lacked the ability to socialize and fit into the rest of the world. But through inclusion into mainstream schools, children with special needs have been able to improve their social skills. Psychologists also claim that a mixed environment is more conducive for children’s learning rather than when they are isolated. Their self esteem also receives a boost because thy feel that they are good enough to learn with other children.(Blanden Gregg and Machin, 2005) Benefits of inclusive education are not only felt by those children with special needs alone, they are also beneficial to normal children. This is because they learn that children with special needs are not so different from them. It eliminates the fears and stereotypes that come are associated with special needs children. (Gipps and Stobart, 1997) However, there is a need for teachers to prepare well for these special needs children. Failure to do so will result in poor adjustments by the child and surrounding classmates. It is also the responsibility of all stakeholders in the field of education to readjust their systems such that children with special needs can fit in well. It has been emphasised time and time again that mainstream schools should not expect children with special needs to adjust to their programme. Instead, the opposite should occur.(Machin and Vignoles, 2004) This policy has increased the availability of resources towards the education of children with special needs. It has also exposed children with special needs to better teaching facilities and skills. Consequently, it has improved their performance and contributed to the attainment of their potential. (Besley and Ghatak, 2003) Marketability in schools In the early nineties, it had been found that most children above the age of sixteen had low retention rates. This normally applied to those who came from low income households. Most of them would drop out and join the market without ample knowledge to make it out there. Even those who were encouraged to stay ended up performing very poorly because they seemed not to have an interest in schooling. There results were clear evidence that something needed to be done to increase their numbers. It was found that in the late eighties, close to sixty seven percent of the students who sat for the GCSE exam got marks that fell below the A to C grade. It was therefore necessary to introduce a system that would encourage students to tackle the whole journey and complete it. (Kingdon and Stobart, 1998) You can get expert help with your essays right now. Find out more The government introduced the Education Reform Act of 1988; it was designed to encourage schools to admit more students. The government started funding schools directly rather than through the use of local government. Schools that admitted more students were liable to greater funds than those with lesser numbers. Parents were also given the choice of deciding which schools they would like to take their children. This was one of the most evolutionary policies because it allowed them to make the choice for themselves. (Gibbons, 2005) Alongside choice, parents were also given the choice of deciding who would be representing them in school boards. Schools were expected to be more accountable to parents by giving them more information about themselves. In light of those changes, the government introduced league tables. These were publications of students’ results in the newspapers highlighting the performance of those at the age of sixteen. It provided information about the best schools so that other non performing schools would be encouraged to improve. (Le Grand, 1993) Overly, the reform was aimed at making schools market themselves. They were not allowed to fall out or fail in the creation of a good market standing. As the years went by schools have a sort of quasi market in which their fate lies in their own hands (Gibbons, 2005) The main impact of this reform is that overall retention rates in the education system have increased. There have been more students completing their education and many of them are pursuing higher education. However, when one examines this issue critically, they realise the highest number of students getting retained in good schools come from privileged backgrounds. When schools market themselves, parents with higher income sources are able to afford the best schools because it is very likely that those very schools have the resources and personnel to achieve good performance. Consequently, this policy has brought about some elements of inequality in the UK education system. Most people from low income backgrounds lack the ability to afford good schools as seen from statistics. This has brought about social-economic disadvantages among members of the education community.(Le Grand, 1993) Despite these social problems, one must not ignore the facts on the ground; the number of students passing the final exams has increased. Whether some of them are coming from certain backgrounds does not undermine the increase in numbers. Centralisation During the early nineties, the UK realised that there was inadequate literacy levels among members of the adult population. Research conducted in this area revealed that this field needed some improvements. Surveys were done among young adults and older ones. The older ones were found to have average rates of literacy. However, the younger adults were found to fall below average levels compared to other countries who participated in the surveys. (Machin and McNally, 2004) These were the reasons why the UK government decided to change its curriculum. It created a national curriculum that was common to all schools. This was necessary in order to ascertain the same standards were maintained throughout all schools within the country. It was also done to ensure that those standards were high such that students could attain the high levels of literacy. The UK decided not to leave the duties and responsibilities of making a curriculum to specific schools but has introduced a national curriculum. These changes applied to students between the ages of seven to sixteen years.(Vignoles and Machin, 2004) Centralisation in the UK education sector has also taken the form of National Numeracy and Literacy classes. These are classes that are supposed to be taught on a daily basis to students in primary schools. They are meant to reinforce good literacy skills. Rigorous methods of assessment for these methods are also available from the government. Its main aim was to ensure that children leaving primary school had basic literacy skills. Tests were also conducted to ensure that students can adhere to requirements. Students are expected to sit for tests at the ages of 16, 14, 11, and 7 corresponding to key stages 4, 3, 2 and one. (Besley and Ghatak, 2003) The impact of this reform was that parents became more aware about what their children are learning. On top of this, nationalisation of the curriculum has the ability to standardise teaching processes. In the past, the education sector in the UK has had serious problems in recruiting competent and intelligent teachers. This was as a result of the negative mentality associated with the teaching profession (most bright students think it is below them); most teachers may not be very efficient in the teaching process. They therefore require some sort of guide to help them in determining what the right and wrong materials for teaching are. This was the reason why some of them were not choosing the right areas to address. A national curriculum is therefore an aid to teachers who may otherwise not know exactly what to teach.(Machin and McNally, 2004) Find out how our expert essay writers can help you with your work A survey done during 2004 in four hundred schools implementing the national curriculum shed some light on the impact of this policy. It has shown that attainment of literacy has greatly improved and children have better knowledge. However, these schools that showed the highest levels were the ones that observed strict adherence to stipulated requirements. (Hoxby, 2003) Admission into fields of higher education During the nineties, the UK government realised that there are few people who pursue higher education. This could be attributed to the fact that most of them had not done so well in their GCSE exam and therefore felt no need to continue. Some of the people who made the choice not to pursue higher education ended up joining vocational schools. This is not such a bad thing when results emerging from it are capable of earning those students respectable jobs in the market. But this was not the case, most students attending vocational training were not able to get good jobs and this left a lot to be desired in the field of education. (Bradley, 2001) One policy that was passed in response to this need was the improvement of Vocational training. Since UK realised that there were substantial members from student bodies who preferred this system, then they decided to improve it. The government has focused on making vocational training more professional and lucrative in the job market. This has been achieved through introduction of the National Vocational Qualification which was designed to make this field more streamlined. The policy introduced the issue of apprenticeship where students could attend regular classes but at the same time practice their skills at a work place for a period of three years. This would go a long way in ensuring that students who complete vocational training are highly qualified and have adequate capability to meet the demand of the highly competitive labour market.(Dearden, 2002) Another aspect of policy within the UK that deals with encouragement of students to join higher education is the issue of Education Maintenance Allowance. This policy was introduced in order to encourage students coming from low income households to continue with higher education. This was a fee given to students between the ages of sixteen and nineteen who came from families that received low incomes. Homes that qualified had to be below a certain criteria designed by the government. The government realized that even if the quality of vocational schools had been improved, this was not enough to increase the numbers of students coming from poor homes. The allowance is continuously increased when students improve their performance thus encouraging them to keep up with attendance and to perform well.(Hoxby, 2003) You can get expert help with your essays right now. Find out more These reforms have had several effects on the education system in the UK. First of all, maintenance allowance has been very successful. A survey done on the year 2004 showed that there are 4.5 percent more students who continue onto higher education as a result of the introduction of an allowance. Besides this, it was found that retention rates increased to seven percent among males in their second nature. The research shows that most of these students were hindered from participating in higher education because students had insecurities about sources of funding. (Hansen and Vignoles, 2005) However, the vocational policies passed have not been very effective in bridging the gap between the academically qualified students and students who have passed through vocational training. The problem with this policy is that is has undergone too many reforms, consequently, employers are not aware of the exact curriculum that students follow within those vocational schools. Employers shun students who come from vocational schools because they believe that these students are the weak ones who could not qualify for other formal education systems. Some employers even prefer workers without any qualifications at all. The government should therefore focus on other more productive policies.(Chubb and Moe, 1990) Conclusion Education policy in the UK is constantly evolving. The most promising of these policies is that of inclusion of special needs children into mainstream schools. Vocational training policies have not been effective in encouraging students to pursue higher education. However, introduction of a centralised curriculum has improved performance. Similarly, introduction of quasi markets in education have also been highly successful.(Dixit, 2002) Reference: Besley, T. and M. Ghatak (2003): Incentives, Choice, and Accountability in the Provision of Public Services; Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 19, pp. 235-249 Blanden, J., P. Gregg and S. Machin (2005): Educational Inequality and Intergenerational, Mobility, in Machin, S. and A. Vignoles (eds.) What’s the Good of Education?; The Economics of Education in the United Kingdom, Princeton University Press Bradley, S. et al (2001): School Choice, Competition and the Efficiency of Secondary Schools in England; European Journal of Operational Research, No. 135, pp 527-544 Chubb, J and T. Moe (1990): Politics, Markets and UK’s Schools; The Brookings Institution Dearden, L. et al (2002): The Returns to Academic and Vocational Qualifications in Britain; Bulletin of Economic Research, No. 54, pp 249-274 Dixit, A. (2002): Incentives and Organizations in the Public Sector; Journal of Human Resources, No. 37, pp.696-727 Gibbons, S. et al (2005): Choice, Competition and Pupil Achievement; forthcoming Centre for Economics of Education Discussion Paper, No. 20, pp. 27 Gipps, C. and G. Stobart (1997): Assessment: A Teachers Guide to the Issues; Hodder and Stoughton Publishers Hansen, K. and A. Vignoles (2005): The United Kingdom Education System in an International Context, in Machin, S. and A. Vignoles (eds.) what’s the Good of Education?; The Economics of Education in the United Kingdom, Princeton University Press Hoxby, C. (2003): The Economics of School Choice, Chicago University Press Kingdon, M. and G. Stobart (1998): GCSE Examined; Falmer Press Le Grand, J. (1993): Quasi-markets and social policy; Macmillan Machin, S. and S. McNally (2004): The Literacy Hour; Centre for the Economics of Education Discussion, Paper 43 Machin, S. and A. Vignoles (2004): Educational Inequality: The Widening Socio-Economic Gap; Fiscal Studies, No.25, pp 107-28

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Hamlet Behavioral Essay Essay

Shakespeare’s Hamlet for years has been the classic example of a man turned to madness because of his foul deeds and tortured soul, and yet despite this characterization he has also proven to be a character that the audience could relate to. He wasn’t loud or brash; indeed Hamlet was an educated man, a university scholar. As the play progresses the audience learns that he can and does love another person despite his quiet and reserved nature and when he does finally die in the closing sequences of the play, he does so in honor after killing the man who killed his father and who plotted to kill him. In Act III, Scene i of the play we meet Hamlet uttering those famous words â€Å"To be or not to be: that is the question† (III. i. 58). He is thinking about committing suicide because he is unable to deal with his own painful memories, especially those surrounding the death of his father. Later in this scene he rebukes Ophelia when she tries to return his gifts, categorically stating that he did not give her anything in love at all. He becomes angry with her and even demands that she move to a nunnery, as he was so upset at the concept of marriage. In this part of the play we see a man who is actually acting in kindness. He did not feel worthy of Ophelia’s love or affection and given that he was contemplating his own death he would be aware that Ophelia would be safe in a nunnery even if she wasn’t that happy. There is a suggestion from Shakespeare that Ophelia is aware of Hamlet’s motive behind his anger when she is described as mourning Hamlet’s mind, believing he had actually succumbed to insanity. In the second scene of Act III the audience is shown the plans Hamlet has for exposing the King through the enactment of a play that was meant to strongly resemble the actions that Hamlet presumed led to his father’s death. When the King does leave the room during the play Hamlet seeks assurances from his friends that the King’s behavior was suspect and therefore the King must be guilty. Hamlet decides to have a frank talk to his mother about the King before any action is taken. He is quoted as saying, â€Å"I will speak daggers to her, but use none† (III. ii. 366). This scene shows the paradox of Hamlet’s anguish over this father’s death. Although he believes the King his uncle is guilty, he also has the horrible duty of telling his mother about his suspicions and although he does exhibit signs of some mad behavior, he is still in control enough to understand the hurt his mother will go through after his revelation. This is evident in his further angry comments with Ophelia before he goes to speak to his mother. By the third scene Hamlet has worked himself up to a state where he could kill Claudius and avenge his father’s death, but when he goes to confront the man he sees that Claudius is on his knees praying. Now this scene is important because although Hamlet was angry enough to kill the King he wants to wait until the man has finished praying. A person that was totally out of control would not be considerate enough to wait until the victim had finished his prayers, but Hamlet did although his dialogue at the time suggests that Hamlet waited only because he did not want Claudius’s soul to go directly to heaven. The last scene of Act III is where Hamlet does confront his mother with his own suspicions and by accident kills Polonius. The scene contains graphic dialogue from Hamlet to his mother especially regarding her sexual relationship with his uncle, with his statements seemingly proving his lapse into insanity. The random killing of Polonius showed that even in anger Hamlet was not prepared to kill Claudius (the intended victim) face-to-face, which is why he did not pull back the curtain to ascertain the identity of the hidden man. Act III does contain some of the more graphic examples of Hamlet’s madness but on analysis it would seem his behavior could not be considered negative when taken in context. Hamlet was justifiably upset when he finds out Claudius has killed his father, and then married his mother straight afterwards. He wants what many young men of that era wanted, and that was to avenge his father’s death with honor, but it would seem that he just didn’t have the killer instinct in his behavior to actually carry out the act. Hamlet also shows foresight in arguing with Ophelia and in the way he verbally attacked his mother concentrating more on the sexual aspects of her life with Claudius rather than his personality. On analysis it would seem that Hamlet’s behavior in the third act would be as positive as it could be given the circumstances, and on reflection it is his lack of killing ability and his consideration for this mother and Ophelia that shows Hamlet’s behavior in a more positive light than can be assumed from a surface reading of the dialogue alone.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Aristotle and Weed Essay

What would Aristotle think about legalizing Marijuana? When attempting to speculate on how Aristotle would feel about this inquiry, I feel that only one thing must be addressed. What kind of person does marijuana make me, and does the legalization of marijuana increase or decrease a person’s ability to be happy and good? What Kind of Person According to Aristotle, the difference between animals and humans is our ability to rationalize and utilize reason. Man is at its most basic level rational animals. Non-rational beings only possess vegetative and appetitive aspects of their mind, whereas humans retain the most important, according to Aristotle, portion of the soul: the rational part. The reason that this is the most important is that it allows us to ascertain genuine happiness. Therefore, since animals and even children do not possess the rational facet of the soul, they cannot achieve true happiness. As humans, our advantage over non-rational beings is our ability to be happy, as defined by Aristotle. Happiness, he states, â€Å"is apparently something complete and self-sufficient, since it is the end of the things achievable in action. † (NE 1097b20). So for Aristotle to approve of the legalization of it, marijuana would have to be something that would advance the happiness of humans and promote reason on the part of the soul. So does marijuana foster sensible choices and assist humans in our quest for happiness? Well, when analyzed from a philosophical viewpoint, no. Using drugs diminishes our ability to utilize reason when faced with decisions. It modifies our mindset and transforms us from rational animals into just plain simple animals. Drugs can force one to talk with slurred speech, visibly alter their perceptions of what is going on around them, and even take their freedom of will. So the fact that marijuana decreases human ability to be rational, reasonable, and thus happy, I would have to say that Aristotle would disapprove for most cases. However, medicinal marijuana does promote happiness. If someone has a disease in which the use of marijuana could numb his or her pain, I think that Aristotle would say that this is ok and good because it is assisting him or her in his or her quest for happiness, even if temporary. So where would he draw the line between vice and virtue? I think that Aristotle would support the system that we have today. Excess would be allowing everyone to purchase marijuana. Lack would be banning it completely because it does have some benefits for the medical community. I think that the Mean would be allowing it to be used for medicinal purposes only and not for public access because repeated use does not promote rationalization and happiness. In conclusion, I think that Aristotle would not support the further legalization of marijuana for personal use. Aristotle would, however, not take action to ban it any further either. I think that he would be content with how the system is today. Marijuana does have some medicinal benefits to people with painful diseases in that it creates, although fleeting, happiness. For normal people, however, repeated use of marijuana results in a deteriorated capacity to make rational decisions. It weakens our soul and forces us to become irrational animals. This fact forces me to conclude that Aristotle would neither further nor reduce the current legal status of marijuana.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Essay on 20th Century English Literature - 647 Words

May 3, 2011 British Literature II Defining Literary Techniques of 20th Century English Literature During the 20th Century, much advancement and change occurred throughout English Literature. All of the works we studied from this period were heavily influenced by current events in the world. The writers all examined the world around them and tried to express it through their writings. The three things that weave a common thread throughout all 20th Century English Literature are global warfare, radical artistic experimentation, and the effects of colonial expansion. The first point of global warfare is an easily identifiable and widespread one. All of the poetry we examined was centered around warfare and the effects of it on†¦show more content†¦It also uses magical realism as another form of artistic experimentation. In â€Å"The Moment Before the Gun Went Off,† the author Nadine Gordimer caught some flak for experimenting in her literature by writing it about racism rather than focusing on the more feminist issues of the day, as were the norm. She also wrote this story from several viewpoints, wanting to enable the reader to understand the full scope of apartheid. One more literary experiment she incorporated was foreshadowing the twist ending subtly throughout the entire story. Radical literary experimentation was a big part of 20th Century English Literature. Lastly, the colonial expansion theme is perhaps the easiest and broadest similarity to pick up on. Each story we studied is set in and has the culture of a foreign land. Usually this land was one from England’s massive colonial empire, but not always. Take â€Å"The Day They Burned the Books† by Jean Rhys for example. This story being set in the Caribbean clearly shows a foreign setting. They way the natives rebel in the story also brings out the oppressive nature of colonialism and how they struggled against it. â€Å"Walker Brother’s Cowboy† by Alice Munro is set in depression era Canada and shows how the people struggled with the effects of colonialism even during the Great Depression. The third defining feature is possibly the greatest one of 20th Century English Literature. In conclusion, theShow MoreRelatedIntegumentary System Of Skin1308 Words   |  6 Pagesmethods of healing have varied. The written history of burn treatments began in 1500 BC and advancements in treatments have continued into the 21st century. Early burn treatment in 1500 BC involved using calf dung and black mud.5 There was a notable increase in literature on wound healing in the 20th century. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Race, Race And Racism Essay - 1396 Words

Project Description: This project is comprised of rhetorical commentary overview, that is used to examine and develop a better understanding of the terms, race and racism in society (critical race theory) (Stefancic and Delgado 1995, 177). By using the critical race theory and examining incidents of police misconduct, this will determine whether or not race plays a crucial factor. Additionally, this project encompasses a vast knowledge of the criminal justice system and the police departments of the United States of America. Furthermore, one must keep in mind that â€Å"police work is dangerous, difficult, and unappreciated, but there is no excuse for the type of behavior recorded on videotape† (Brooks 1991). The main focus of this research is to review cases that have been reported in the media, in order to come to a comprehension of why there is a higher proportion of minorities being killed by police officers. 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Its utility rests upon the assumption that race is a social construct and not an inherent biological feature. In place of the concept of inherent race, critical race theory proffers the concept of racialization. The tenet that the concept of race is createdRead MoreCritical Race Theory : Race And Racism Essay927 Words   |  4 PagesThe overarching theme of critical race theory is centered on race and racism, however in higher education, critical race scholars recognize that racial identity and this form of oppression (racism) intersects with other subordin ated identities (such as gender, class, religion, ability/disability, sexual orientation, etc.) and forms of oppression (sexism, homophobia, ableism, etc.) to influence People of Color’s lived experiences (Bartlett Brayboy, 2005; Brayboy 2005; Kumasi, 2011; Lynn AdamsRead MoreRace, Racism, Or Ethnicity1559 Words   |  7 Pagesnotion of race is prevalent in every society. Rather it is consciously or unconsciously, the idea of race is shaping our everyday lives, from the day we were born, to the one we will die, in school, at work, or simply in the supermarket. Historically, as well as in Contemporary societies, the term race is a rather controversial one, and has raised many questions, due to its lack of proper definition and mostly because of its negative connotations. Associated with ethnicity or racism, it createdRead MoreRacism, Race, And Discrimination Essay1650 Words   |  7 PagesColonialism Throughout this class, Religion, Race, and Discrimination in America, we have learned how racism came about with many different theories. Religion can be defined as, a belief or worship in a higher power, normally a God or Gods. Race can be defined as social grouping or form of peoplehood that is marked by traits that are perceived to be biologically inherited. (Prentiss Introduction, slide 9) With race and religion people or groups of people can justify the discrimination of others becauseRead MoreDiscrimination On Race And Racism1740 Words   |  7 PagesDiscrimination on Race Racism is very much still alive in the United States and it affects all people, but mainly one certain group. Racism destroys dreams and hopes for the victims that have been discriminated against and have sadly lost their lives as well. African Americans have less opportunities and chances to prove that they can also do good to some to the word instead of stereotypical judging them. White Americans, not all but the racist only, most likely believe that if you are different

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Essay on Beowulf study guide - 1576 Words

1) Describe how we find King Hrothgar and his response to learning that Beowulf has come to his kingdom. A. The king is sad and depressed that his kingdom has fallen into such a state of disrepair. He is overjoyed to learn that Beowulf, whom he knows from stories and his father, Ecgtheow, has come to fight Grendel. Hrothgar promises Beowulf treasure if he can defeat the monster. 2) In the beginning of â€Å"Beowulf,† King Hrothgar’s hall has been deserted for twelve years. In a short essay, tell why the hall has been deserted. Be sure to include specific examples from the text. What happened to those who ventured into the hall during those 12 years? What was the cause of this? At what time of day did these events take place? Explain. A. A.†¦show more content†¦5) What is the outcome of Beowulfs battle with Grendel? A. Grendel gets away, but he is fatally wounded and goes to his den to die. 6) Describe the setting where Beowulf fights Grendels mother A. The den of Grendel and his mother is the bottom of a dark lake. It is covered with dark mists and trees whose roots travel down into the deep water. At night the lake burns like a torch. 7) Imagine that Grendel has escaped unharmed after fighting Beowulf at Herot. Based on what the poem has taught you about the monster, what do you think Grendel will do next in his war against Beowulf and the Danes? Use reasons and examples from Beowulf to further explain your opinion. A. Grendel will return to fight Beowulf again. They may note that Grendel is determined to battle humans and the forces of good. He is also a strong, proud, and brave monster used to winning his battles. 8) What follows Beowulf’s battle with Grendel that brings further sorrow to King Hrothgar? A. To avenge her sons death, Grendels mother comes to Herot and kills a warrior who happens to be Hrothgars closest friend. 9) List three reasons why Grendel from Beowulf might have led a painful life. A. Grendel is impatient with the music and celebration of Hrothgar’s men; his home is a hell on earth; he was born in slime; his parents are the children of Cain, who were exiled by God; he is family to â€Å"a thousand forms of evil,† who angrily fight against God. 10) Many critics and teachers believeShow MoreRelatedEssay on Good vs Evil in Beowulf1568 Words   |  7 PagesIn Beowulf, the clash between good and evil is the poems main and most significant focal point. Although the epic poem Beowulf utilizes many characteristics of Christian themes, the violence in the poem relates to paganism. By exploring the characteristics of â€Å"good vs. evil† such as Cain, Grendel and Beowulf, this paper will explore the elements of Beowulf in such a light. The Anglo-Saxon poem, Beowulf, was originally told orally then later was written down anonymously in the Old English languageRead MoreEssay on The Changing Concept of Hero988 Words   |  4 Pagesthe enemies that are being faced, and the values of each of them. Beowulf has no known author but it is thought to be written before the Anglo-Saxon exodus is completed but after the conquest began (p.30). Also going on during this time was the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon pagans to Christianity by Saint Augustine of Canterbury’s mission. This may account for the major focus on Christian themes throughout Beowulf, while Beowulf as a character is seen as a very pagan character (Lane). For instanceRead More Beowulf and The Intent of Christians to Convert Pagans Into Christianity 1069 Words   |  5 Pagesit to keep track of the history of their people. Beowulf is an epic poem that was past down by the Anglo Saxons from generation to generation. The poem is infused with multiple elements of their pagan religion. However, when they immigrated to England and began to tell the tale of Beowulf, the local inhabitants began to listen and put their twist on it. Douglas Wilson states: Through a heroic poem about pagans that never mentions Christ, Beowulf is the opposite of syncretistic compromise. It isRead MoreBeowulf And The Anglo Saxon Period1740 Words   |  7 PagesBeowulf The original poem, Beowulf, goes back to the Anglo-Saxon period in c. 650 and c.1100. Authors translated Beowulf many times in the Anglo-Saxon period to present day. It displays how a hero should be in the real world. He helps the people in the village and slays monsters. Everyone in the village looks up to him as he acts as if he were a role model. Beowulf, the protagonist in the translated Beowulf by Seamus Heaney, is a hero of his village, stands for bravery, strong will, and noblenessRead MoreThe Heroes Of The Epic Of Beowulf By William Shakespeare1292 Words   |  6 PagesYet, In Beowulf, despite Beowulf’s heroism and his preoccupation with honor, he operates with free will and without the burden of a character flaw. Heroism is attached with its own qualities that make up the characteristics of Beowulf and Aeneas. Throughout Beowulf, his acts of heroism were highly praised. Many times, the king of the Danes praised Beowulf for his battle accomplishments and believed he would excel in defeating the monster that terrorized his castle. The king looks to Beowulf as ifRead MoreExplaining the Three Stages in The Heros Journey Essay1757 Words   |  8 Pagesthis concept, there are a few stories covered in this class that can be used. Beowulf is an epic poem telling the story of Beowulf, a legendary Geatish hero who later becomes king in the aforementioned epic poem. While the story in and of itself is quite interesting, for the purpose of this paper it is important to look at the character more so then his deeds, or rather why he did what he did. In the story, Beowulf travels to Heorot to help King Hrothgar with a problem involving a monster namedRead MoreEssay about John Miltons Paradise Lost as Christian Epic1147 Words   |  5 Pagessubject of his great work the fall of man, from Genesis, which was a very popular story to discuss and retell at the time. His whole life had led up to the completion of this greatest work; he put over twenty years of time and almost as many years of study and travel to build a timeless classic. The success of his poem lies in the fact that he skillfully combined classic epic tradition with strongly held Puritan Christian beliefs. In Paradise Lost, Milton uses many conventions of the classic epicRead MoreComparing Beowulf And Sir Gawain And The Green Knight Essay1762 Words   |  8 Pageswork. Beowulf and Sir Gawain both exhibit what the Anglo-Saxons and the Middle-English viewed as both proper and improper conduct. What the reader encounters through these two characters, however, involves a paradigm shift between the two cultures, with values, fate and pride leading to demise , reflected in Beowulf contrasting with those, the knight’s code of honor and chivalry, expressed in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. These dissimilar worldviews become apparent through an archetypal study ofRead MoreWhat Makes A Hero?1541 Words   |  7 Pagestook much more. It took honesty, wisdom, and in some cases, wealth and superhuman abilities. With time new stories and beliefs are uncovered. In ancient times there were heroes that we can study today through books. Some of the most well known heroes are: Achilles, Ody sseus, Aneius, Socrates, Gilgamesh, Beowulf, and King Arthur. Achilles was a well known Greek hero. He was a warrior that faught long and hard for his people. He was a superhuman, believed to be part god. His mother dipped him inRead MoreEssay Study Guide1115 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Study Guide for World Lit. Exam 2 1. What does Beowulf mean when he says that an undoomed man can escape death in battle if his courage is good? If you are undoomed you might be able to escape death if you fight well in battle. If you don’t fight well or bravely you still have a possibility of death. If you are doomed, no matter how you fight you’re going to die. 2. In what ways is the code by which Beowulf fights like the Greek heroic code and different? The Greek heroic code involves

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Politcal Allegory Term Paper Of 1984

Politcal Allegory Term Paper Of 1984- By Orwell Essay The Political allegory of George Orwells1984In 1984, by George Orwell, the reader sees a primary theme of political allegory and satire. Orwell is presenting the world of 1984 as a satiric statement of what might come to pass, though of course its exact form could never be predicted, if the world did not become aware of the terrible problems facing it, not in 1984, but here and now. Orwell wrote the novel not as a prediction, but as a warning. He believed that in many ways society was regressing back in the direction of barbarism, and that in the fight against fascism and other totalitarian and terroristic systems of government, even Western liberal society was being corrupted and was adopting the techniques used by its enemies. Orwells purpose in writing was not only to record what was happening in the world and to project ahead in order to make men realize what was happening and likely to happen. It was as much or more his purpose to change the world(Ranald). George Orwell wrote an article on Arthur Koestler in 1944, which expresses the various aspects of his conflict about the question of social revolution. At one point he wrote, It is quite possible that mans major problems will never be solved. But it is also unthinkable! Who is there who dares to look at the world of today and say to himself, It will always be like this:.. Niyazov 2That is Orwells confession of his passionate inability to live without commitment to the idea of change. 1984 is the kind of book in which a writer finally explores the limits of his obsessions and the darkest aspects of themes he has been concerned with for years. Homage to Catalonia, Animal Farm, and 1984 are all concerned with political evil, the misuse of language, the destruction of history and the objective Koestler as the impossibility of combining power with righteousness. Homage to Catalonia is documentary and journalism. Animal Farm is a fable. Orwell rewrote it with human beings as the personae i n 1984. All three books express his unique assumption that evil is primarily political. The two best-known works of Orwell, the beast fable and the anti-Utopian fiction seem to have more universal satirical meanings. Both books deal with what Orwell called the central question-how to prevent power from being abused. Furthermore, both deal with the corruption of an originally revolutionary ideal into just another dictatorial regime. As if Orwell is saying, men will always allow themselves to be tricked and to behave, in the terms of Animal Farm, like Boxer and sheep. There are many similarities between the two works. In both, there is an originally idealistic Revolution which has become corrupt. There is an all-powerful Leader who has maintained power by force, trickery, and terrorism. In both, Orwell shows the perversion of a noble idea. Human equality into a sinister myth bearing no relation to the actual situation, and indulged by a propaganda agency (the Ministry of Truth in 1984 and Squealer in Animal Farm) which has in each case the task of deceiving the general population. Animal Farm is a satire that uses its characters to symbolize leaders of the Russian Revolution. The animals of Manor Farm, the setting of this novel, which symbolizes Russia, Niyazov 3overthrow their human master after years of mistreatment. Led by the pigs, the farm animals continue to do their work, only with more pride, knowing that they are working for themselves, as opposed to working for their human master.Slowly over time the pigs gain power and take advantage of the other animals. They gain so much power that they become just as power hungry and corrupt as their human master. The theme in the novel being that in every society there are leaders who will, if given the chance, likely abuse their position. Old Major is a prize white boar who helps point out to the animals that no animal in England is free. He continues to tell the animals that the their labor is stolen by man, who benefits alone. The animals in return get near nothing Old Major gave many speeches to the farm ani mals about hope and the future. He is the main animal who got the rebellion started even though he died before it actually began. Old Majors role compares to Lenin and Marx whose ideas would spark the communist revolution. Lenin became the leader and teacher of the working class in Russia, and their determination to struggle against capitalism. Like Old Major, Lenin and Marx wrote essays and gave speeches to the working class and the poor. The working class in Russia, as compared with the barnyard animals in Animal Farm, were a laboring class of people that received low wages for their work. Old major tells the animals that the source of the problem is man. They must overthrow man to abolish tyranny and hunger. Soon Old Major does die, but his words still echo in the hearts of all the animals. With the leadership of the pigs, the smartest animals, they rebel against the human and gain complete control of the farm. This would symbolize the Russian Revolution. Another parallel represe nted in the book is Farmer Jones. His character is similar to the politician Czar Nicholas who treated his people similar to how Farmer Jones treated his animals. The animal rebellion on the farm was started because Farmer Jones was a drunk whoNiyazov 4never took care of the animals. This made them very angry, fed by the words of Old Major the animals decided to rebel like the Russians. Czar Nicholas was a very weak man who treated his people similar to how Farmer Jones treated his animals. The Czar made his working class people very uneasy with the way he used his authority and preached all the time, and the people suffered and finally demanded reform by rebelling. The animal Napoleon can be compared as a character representing Stalin in Russia. Both were very mean looking, didnt talk very much but always got what they wanted through force. In one part of the book Napoleon had the dogs charge Snowball, another animal, as soon as he thought that the pigs were becoming corrupt. Stali n became the Soviet Leader after the death of Lenin. He was underestimated by his opponents who always became his victims, and he had one of the most ruthless, regimes in history. In was not until many years later that the world found out about the many deaths that Stalin created in Russia during the Revolution.Another strong parallel is the character of Snowball with the Russian leader Trotsky. Snowball was very enthusiastic and was a leader who organized the defense of the farm. He gave speeches and instructions but was not very beneficial. All the other animals liked him, but he was outsmarted by Napoleon. Trotsky and Stalins relationship was very much like Snowballs and Napoleons. Trotsky organized the Red Army and gave speeches and everyone in Russia thought he would win power over Stalin. After Lenins death Trotsky lost all his power to Stalin and was expelled from the communist party. A Personal Experience with Fear EssayBibliographyOrwell, George. 1984. Signet Books: the New American Library of World Literature, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1950. Koestler, Arthur. Critical Essay. Secker and Warburg, London, 1946. Kaleckofsky, Roberta. George Orwell. Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co. New York, N.Y., 1973Ranald, Ralph. Monarch Notes. Simon ; Schuster division of Gulf ; Western Co. Simon ; Schuster Building. New York, N.Y., 1965Borman, Gilbert. Cliffs Notes. Cliffs Notes, Inc., U.S.A., 1998Ferrell, Keith. George Orwell The Political Pen. M. Evans and Company, Inc. New York, N.Y. 1985Rosenfeld, Isaac. An Age of Enormity. World Publishing Co., New York, 1962OutlineI.A primary theme of political allegory and satire in Orwells worksA. 1984 not as a prediction but as a warning B. His attempt to reveal how barbaric the government may come to be through his works IIEvil is primarily politicalA. Similarities in Orwells worksB. Corruption of an originally revolutionary ideal into another dictatorial regime III. Animal Farm as a satiric allegory of the Russian Revolution A. Leaders are most likely to abuse power given to themB. Comparison of characters in Animal farm to Russian leaders1. Old Major compared to Lenin and Marx2. Farmer Jones compared to Czar Nicholas3. The animal Napoleon compared to Stalin4. Snowball compared to TrotskyIV1984A. Laws social pressure could operate with more coercive force than outright legalprohibition B. Misuse of language1. Newspeak2. Reality is reverse of the language used to designate itV.1984 as a satire on the intellectual and a defense of intellectual freedomA. aggression of the government of Oceania directed toward people who have ideasVI.Conclusion